Taiwan (Chinese Taipei) and Singapore
Relations between the island of Taiwan and mainland China have been of importance in world politics for the past 60 years. With tensions gradually easing due to increased trade and tourism there is hope that the armed conflict that long threatened has been avoided. The name Taiwan is the 'Western' name that is most often used Overseas. Like most names for things Chinese this is not quite correct. The term Chinese Taipei is now often used as the official name; it represents a bit of a compromise between the two sides.
Taiwan is slightly larger in area than the state of Maryland ➚ or Wales ➚ and is densely populated (about 23.2 million people, compared to 1434 million in mainland China). It lies just 100 miles [161 kms] miles off the coast of south east China and within one hundred miles of both Japan and the Philippines. It has a mountainous interior and a subtropical climate. The mountains slope down to the west and the western fringe has the best agricultural land. Its position makes it subject to frequent typhoons that sweep in from the Pacific in Summer. The capital of the island of Taiwan is the city of Taipei.
History of Taiwan
The early history of Taiwan is one of repeated conquest. The bare facts can be briefly stated. Prior to Dutch conquest in 1624 it was in the hands of its indigenous people who were fiercely independent of Chinese rule. It was the Portuguese who in 1554 gave the island its alternative name ‘Formosa’ (meaning ‘beautiful island’) and this name was used in the West up to 1945. The Dutch spice traders conquered it as another island in their chain of trading posts. Over time, the name which the Dutch used for their port of ‘Tayouan’ became ‘Taiwan’, and this was then used in the West for the island as a whole.
When the Ming dynasty fell to the Manchus in 1644, a leading Ming military leader (Guoxingye Koxinga WG) held out longest. After he lost the Battle of Nanjing ➚ in 1659, he fled to Kinmen (Quemoy) and then finally to Taiwan. He ejected the Dutch settlers who had begun to colonize in 1623. Attacks from Qing ships wore down Guoxingye's resistance and the Manchus eventually took over the island in 1683 adding Taiwan to the Qing Empire.
Taiwan remained a province of China for two hundred years and a great many people from Fujian province settled there. For a time, France, as part of building its Indo-Chinese Empire invaded Taiwan and Vietnam. Following defeat at the battle of Lang Son ➚ France gave up its control of Taiwan at the Treaty of Tianjin 1885 ➚. It then was seceded to Japan as a result of the terms of the peace treaty that ended the Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) together with the Liaodong peninsula. Taiwan was ruled by Japan for the next 50 years and used as a strategic base during the Second World War. The Japanese occupation was relatively peaceful and led to rapid modernization with many Chinese adapting to Japanese customs. The island became more prosperous and the success must have led Japan to believe that its conquest of the mainland would be largely trouble-free.
During Chiang Kaishek's negotiations with Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt in the early Second World War the claim that Taiwan, once the Japanese had been defeated, was to become an integral part of China became established; before 1943 Taiwan was considered a separate entity.
Civil War bolt-hole
Taiwan became a political hot potato at the end of the Chinese Civil War (1927-1950) between the Communists and Nationalists (Guomindang or Kuomindang WG). When Mao founded the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the defeated Nationalist leader Chiang Kaishek fled to Taiwan. It was the potential rekindling of the Civil War and the possible re-conquest of China by the Nationalists (or conquest of Taiwan by China) that kept the dispute rumbling on.
The Nationalists had no natural claim to Taiwan when they invaded the island in 1945 after the withdrawal of the Japanese. Chiang brought with him $300 million in gold; silver and foreign currency to the island together with the best army divisions (2,000,000 men) and art treasures. There was a revolt by the Taiwanese in 1947 against Guomindang rule which was brutally suppressed by General Chen Yi (the February 28th incident ➚). With the start of the Korean War in 1950, America intervened to defend Taiwan from Communist attack. Chiang Kaishek ruled Taiwan as well as a number of small islands dotted along the coast of Fujian and Zhejiang provinces. In the period 1954 to 1958 the Communist PLA sought to capture the islands (the Battle of Yijiangshan Islands ➚). The Nationalists with massive American aid fended off attacks at Kinmen (Quemoy). Indeed the United States threatened to use nuclear weapons ➚ against China if Kinmen was attacked - despite the fact that China did not have an atomic bomb to defend itself at this time. In an awkward compromise the Nationalists gave up the Dachen islands but kept control of Matsu and Kinmen. So there remains the slightly unreal capability of viewing ‘foreign territory’ within easy sight of mainland China. No wonder the relationship with Taiwan is so fraught.
Throughout the ensuing Cold War between the super powers Chiang Kaishek gambled that a US-Soviet War was likely, and that would bring him huge American military support to drive out the Soviet supported Communists. He calculated that this eventuality would sweep him back to power from his ‘temporary’ island fortress of Taiwan. It is estimated that the Americans spent $2 billion supporting Chiang, much of which was embezzled. US military support included training and transport and during the Korean War ➚ the US Navy set up a base in Taiwan.
Like so many events in Chinese history there are echoes of earlier times, when the Ming dynasty fell to the Manchus in 1644, Guoxingye (Koxinga WG) led attempts from his Taiwan stronghold to re-conquer China and re-establish the Ming dynasty. Such parallels would not have gone unnoticed in Beijing or Taipei.
American Support for Taiwan
The continued American support for Nationalists led to another great injustice. Despite China's great size in both area and population, she had to wait eleven years before being given a seat at the United Nations ➚. When the UN was founded in 1945 the Republic of China (Nationalists) were quite naturally chosen as the representatives of China, and despite their defeat and exile to Taiwan, America blocked any change to their status. It was not until October 25, 1971 that the United Nations recognized the Communist Beijing regime (People's Republic of China) as the representatives of the Chinese People (USA was one of 35 nations still opposed to their admission). Now the tables have turned, it was China that blocked Taiwan holding a seat at the United Nations in 2007 on the basis that there is only ‘one China’. You will still hear the term ‘One China’ policy mentioned; it neatly encapsulated the view that either the People's Republic is China or Taiwan is China and not both. The One China policy ➚ is also used to thwart the establishment of Taiwan as a separate nation state.
In the period 1970 to 1990 Taiwan became a very successful Asian economy with GDP second only to Japan. There were 30 years of steady economic growth. It was investment from America that helped build up advanced technological industries. Many goods were stamped with ‘Republic of China’ to note their origin. This experience was not lost on politicians in Beijing, as it proved that rapid development in Asia was possible. Nowadays, this has taken another turn, as it is the wealthy Taiwanese who have poured investment into China.
Chiang Kaishek died in Taiwan in 1975, just a year before his chief adversary Chairman Mao Zedong. He was eventually succeeded as President of the Republic of China by his son Chiang Ching-kuo ➚. Chiang Kaishek wished for his remains to be buried in China but perhaps at last signaling the end of the Nationalist KMT dream of re-taking the mainland they were interred on Taiwan in 2004. His son took Taiwan on a reformist trajectory. Martial Law instigated by Chiang Kaishek continued in Taiwan until 1987, since then there has been a gradual move to democracy with relatively free and fair elections.
Closer Ties with China
The visit by former Nationalist leader Lien Chan ➚ to China in 2005 was a major step forward in normalizing relations with China. The Cross-Strait Economic and Trade Forum ➚ is working hard to improve already strengthening economic ties. An Economic Cooperation Agreement ➚ was signed by both sides in 2010. Now that the Guomindang's presumption as the sole political party was broken by Democratic Progressive Party's Chen Shui-bian eight year term as President, open debate on Taiwan's future has developed. Guomindang's leader Ma Ying-jeou ➚ was re-elected President in January 2012 for a second term. On 11th February 2014 China and Taiwan met for the first time in 65 years in face-to-face talks ➚. At the meeting in Nanjing both sides agreed to hold regular meetings in future; although the meeting was between officials rather than leaders.
However, differences still remain between China and Taiwan. Beijing would like to recover Chinese imperial treasures housed at the National Palace Museum ➚ in Taipei; in a situation a little like Greece and the Elgin marbles ➚. Another point of difference is that Taiwan (as with other Overseas Chinese communities) continues to use the traditional 'full' script for writing rather than the modern simplified form on the mainland. The older Wade Giles romanization is still used for place names rather than the Pinyin form. Some look to apply the Hong Kong ‘one country - two systems’ solution to allow Taiwan to have a level of independence within the PRC. There has been a shift towards Taiwanese nationalism away from dreams of KMT conquest of the mainland. Here and there the title ‘Republic of China’ is being quietly replaced by ‘Chinese Taipei’ (as at the 2012 London Olympics) or ‘Taiwan’. Recent deals with China have greatly increased the number of Chinese tourists visiting the island. Vastly increased personal and trading contacts will hopefully erode the historical grievances and finally bridge the Taiwan straits.
With the election of Tsai Ing-wen of the opposition DPP (Democratic Progressive Party) in 2016 relations have been more strained. President Tsai, the first woman to hold the role, has sought for an enlargements of democratic freedoms, especially on LGBT issues. She has continued to argue for friendly relations with the mainland but keeping Taiwan independent. The Guomindang leader, Eric Chu, is pledging closer links with Beijing as part of the run-up to the 2020 Presidential election.
Places to Visit in Taiwan
The National Palace Museum ➚ in Taipei must surely be high on everyone's list of places to visit in Taipei. It contains many treasures from Imperial China. Nearby are the old mining towns Jinguashi and Jiufen. Away from the busy city are the Beitou hot springs and the volcanic peaks of Yangmingshan National Park ➚.
Most of the modern development is on the west coast, Taichung and Changhua offer much of interest.
The rugged east coast lacks the industrial activity of the west and it is here that you can find the indigenous people and there is a National Park at Taroko ➚ with fine views of the surrounding landscape.
Tainan ➚ at the south of the island has many historic temples and other buildings of interest. Nearby is the Maolin National Scenic area and the Kenting National Park ➚. The Sun and Moon Lake 日月潭 rì yuè tán near Yuchi is the largest lake in Taiwan with fine sights and an isolated Lalu island, it is located within the aboriginal tribal area. It gets its name because one part is round like the sun and the other part crescent shaped like the moon.
Kaohsiung ➚ in the far south is the second most important city on the island after Taipei.
With military tensions with the mainland eased the many islands in the Taiwan Straits can be visited. Penghu islands ➚ have fine beaches and unspoilt fishing villages.
Google map of Taiwan
Bing map of Taiwan ➚
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The city state of Singapore has becomes a successful nation despite its small size. It has been settled extensively by people of Chinese ancestry who form the dominant group. Singapore shares a similar recent history to Hong Kong and Shanghai. It was chosen as a trading port by the English East India Company in the nineteenth century. Singapore is only 26 miles [42 kms] west to east and 14 miles [23 kms] north to south. Its name is derived from the Malay name ‘Singapura’ which means ‘Lion City’. In Chinese it is transliterated as 新加坡 Xīn jiā pō.
The dominant figure in its early development was Sir Stamford Raffles ➚ who arranged its purchase from the Sultan of Jahore 1819 after he had tried and failed to found a new port on Java. Raffles chose an appropriate time because the Dutch East Indian empire was in terminal decline. At the time Singapore was, like Hong Kong island, barely inhabited with only a few Malay and even fewer Chinese. It provided safe anchorage on a vital trade route from India to China and Indonesia and also exported tin and rubber from inland Malaya. By 1826 the bustling town had attracted many more Chinese who began to outnumber the local Malays. The Chinese community were known as Peranakan Chinese ➚ and formed a distinct group with their own traditions which came from settlers in the 15th to 17th centuries mainly from Cantonese, Hokkien and Hakka peoples. Ming dynasty explorer Zheng He visited the port and this contact bolstered links with China. Later on many people fled here from the Taiping Rebellion and a large number of ‘coolies’ procured by the resident Chinese from China. It was a place where hard work and luck could make anyone comfortably well-off. By 1871 there were 100,000 people half of them Chinese. A long-term British resident wrote ‘It is no exaggeration to say that to these (Chinese people) to a great extent, may be attributed the wonderful progress and prosperity of Singapore’. Most industry was related to trade and shipping. As a measure of the admiration of the British Hoo Ah Kay ➚ (aka Mr. Whampoa) was awarded the Order of St Michael and St George in 1876 by Queen Victoria and served on the legislative council. Nowadays the Chinese community has people with ancestral roots from all over China. The population reached 5.7 million in 2019 and in 2017 74.3% considered themselves ethnic Chinese.
As part of the British Empire it formed part the ‘Straits Community’ made up of four possessions along the Malayan straits: Penang Island ➚ (Prince of Wales Island ), Seberang Perai ➚ (Province Wellesley - mainland to east of Island), Malacca ➚ and Singapore. The status of Chinese people was disputed with China as ethnically Chinese citizens of Singapore were regarded as citizens of China. This issue led to a dispute over the treatment of Chen Qingzhen in 1854 who was tortured by the Chinese as he was regarded as their citizen but he claimed birth in Singapore. To prevent possible ethnic tensions the different communities (Malays, Chinese and Indians) were segregated within the city.
Change came with the Second World War. Britain had built up Singapore as an impregnable fortress that would be the center of defense for its interests in the area. Britain spent $500 million on building up defenses and the largest dry dock in world. The Japanese attacked the city in December 1941 and easily took it by first invading the Malaysian peninsula and then attacking the city from land to the north not the sea. It surrendered on 15th February 1942 (Chinese New Year) and this was the largest surrender in British history. After Allied victory over Japan, Malaya including Singapore was granted independence in 1963. Tensions between Malay and Chinese people led to the split of the city from Malaya in 1965. The last vestige of British presence - the Royal Navy left the port in 1971.
The People's Action Party (PAP) was founded in 1954 to fight for independence from the U.K.. After independence it was Lee Kuan Yew ➚ 李光耀 Lǐ Guāng yàoof the P.A.P. who spearheaded the reforms to build modern Singapore. The PAP has remained the ruling party of government since 1968. His party maintained close links with Taiwan rather than the Peoples Republic and Lee became a broker in the talks between the ‘two Chinas’. There are three official languages in the city: Mandarin, English and Malay. Recently English has become not just the normal language of business but the language most used at home, but most people are fully literate in at least two languages. Singapore uses the simplified rather than the traditional script.
Back in 1978 Deng Xiaoping was so impressed that he ordered top party members to go to Singapore to learn how a city could be run efficiently and prosperously. The training of senior Chinese officials in Singapore has continued up until recent years. It was only after 1990 that formal diplomatic relations with the PRC were normalized. Soon Singapore became a major investor in China's industrial modernization. Singapore became one of the ‘Asian Tigers’ (aka Little Dragons) : Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong and Singapore that demonstrated how Chinese people have created prosperous market economies. This success was an important spur to Deng Xiaoping and Jiang Zemin's reforms in China. Chinese President Xi Jinping admires the way that a small country manages to retain good relations with both the U.S. and China.
According to the World Bank ➚ Singapore is one of the wealthiest places in the world, ranked 3rd in 2019 based on GDP per capita. It has a low crime rate and 9th in the world according to the U.N.Human Development Index Ranking ➚. The prime minister since 2004 has been Lee Hsien Loong 李显龙 the eldest son of Lee Kuan Yew who has maintained his father's style of administration that is considered strict but fair.
Singapore has highly regarded green spaces within the city. ‘Gardens by the Bay’ is a large nature park in central Singapore; it includes the largest greenhouse in the world (‘The Flower Dome’) containing a range of flowers from different continents. The first impression of the city by visitors is at the acclaimed airport which has a large ‘Butterfly Garden ➚’ where travelers can relax in a tropical butterfly habitat with a thousand butterflies fluttering among lush vegetation near the ‘Rain Vortex’ waterfall.